Friday, October 9, 2009

555 Timer IC Working Principal

Comparator 1 has a threshold input (pin 6) and a control input (pin 5). In most applications, the control input is not used, so that the control voltage equals +2/3 VCC. Output of this comparator is applied to set (S) input of the flip-flop. Whenever the threshold voltage exceeds the control voltage, comparator 1 will set the flip-flop and its output is high. A high output from the flip-flop saturates the discharge transistor and discharge the capacitor connected externally to pin 7. The complementary signal out of the flip-flop goes to pin 3, the output. The output available at pin 3 is low. These conditions will prevail until comparator 2 triggers the flip-flop. Even if the voltage at the threshold input falls below 2/3 VCC, that is comparator 1 cannot cause the flip-flop to change again. It means that the comparator 1 can only force the flip-flop’s output high.

To change the output of flip-flop to low, the voltage at the trigger input must fall below + 1/3 Vcc. When this occurs, comparator 2 triggers the flip-flop, forcing its output low. The low output from the flip-flop turns the discharge transistor off and forces the power amplifier to output a high. These conditions will continue independent of the voltage on the trigger input. Comparator 2 can only cause the flip-flop to output low.

From the above discussion it is concluded that for the having low output from the timer 555, the voltage on the threshold input must exceed the control voltage or + 2/3 VCC. They also turn the discharge transistor on. To force the output from the timer high, the voltage on the trigger input must drop below +1/3 VCC. This also turns the discharge transistor off.

A voltage may be applied to the control input to change the levels at which the switching occurs. When not in use, a 0.01 nano Farad capacitor should be connected between pin 5 and ground to prevent noise coupled onto this pin from causing false triggering.

Connecting the reset (pin 4) to a logic low will place a high on the output of flip-flop. The discharge transistor will go on and the power amplifier will output a low. This condition will continue until reset is taken high. This allows synchronization or resetting of the circuit’s operation. When not in use, reset should be tied to +VCC.


555 Timer IC Photo

Signetics NE555 photo